In the Studio 4 Gaming Innovation we are exploring the transformative power of art through the media of games and play. We believe that art transforms people on an elemental level, and, if it permeated humanity at its foundation, the world would be a place where creativity, sharing, tolerance, deep wisdom, critical thinking and nuanced problem-solving
are deeply valued.

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If you would like to study Games as Art with Theresa Devine you can be an Interdisciplinary Arts and Performance major.

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Ce n'est pas un jouet: This is not a toy. On "The Enemy Within" Video Game Series
This manuscript is currently being researched and written. An excerpt is below.

Introduction: This article joins in the tradition of an artist writing about his or her own work E.g. (Judd, 1965; 1977; Newman & O'Neill, 1992; Beuys, 2004; Kandinsky, 1977; Albers, 1975). It is an exposition on my creative research that uses video games as a medium. These games reside in a larger body of work, titled Ce n'est pas un jouet: This is not a toy, which manifests as a series of three sub-bodies of artworks. "The Enemy Within" is the third series and consists of four (4) Xbox 360 games (p. TheEnemyWithin.html). This reflection takes an in-depth look at this work in historical and conceptual terms.

Painting and Games: “The Enemy Within” Video Games: The video games from the series “The Enemy Within” came from a personal desire to "play" a painting. Painting resides in the plastic arts and this desire at its inception flew in the face of an accepted view that the plastic arts are trapped by their own physicality. Huizinga explains this divide like this, "The very fact of their [the plastic arts] being bound to matter and to the limitations of form inherent in it, is enough to forbid them absolutely free play and deny them that flight into the ethereal spaces open to music and poetry" (Huizinga, 1949, p. 166). It was my thought that the introduction of play into an experience of a painting would finally free it from its trap and form a connection between the maker and the viewer in the course of the play experience. These four (4) games have no reward, and so invite the player to create their own goals and conditions to reward themselves. This vagueness toys with the concepts of paidic and ludic games. Jensen explains these concepts, "In paidic games, players can still 'win' as a direct result of conformance to implicit, culturally influenced goals; and in ludic games, goals can be established by the player, even if they do not help the player 'win' or progress in a way intended by the developers of the game" (Jensen, 2013, p. 71). Leaving interpretation of rules and win conditions open connects to the player and builds on a reflection from Clement Greenberg that "Content is to be dissolved so completely into form that the work of art… cannot be reduced in whole or in part to anything not itself" (Greenberg, 1961, p. 6). In video games, dissolving the content into the form "resides in the gap between rule-based representation and player subjectivity" (Bogost, 2007, p. 43) and this thought parallels the current ontological position of painting, that is to be caught somewhere between the eye and the mind (Clark, 2015) and/or between interpretation and consciousness (Ryan, 2002, p. 12). In this way I activate the theory of gestalt and I invite the audience to complete the work through an open ended play experience.

Winnicott and “The Enemy Within” Video Games: (currently being written).

100 & Change: Removing Barriers to Inclusion
for Persons with an Ambulatory Disability.

Theresa Devine of the School of Humanities, Arts, and Cultural Studies partners with Lance and Janis Greathouse founder of the non-profit Wheelchair Labs for 100 & Change application.

Theresa Devine and Lance and Janis Greathouse believe in the power of Art to change the world. In this case, to eradicate the prejudice that persons who use wheelchairs face every day. Their proposal brings together nine disciplines to create wheelchairs that foreground Fine Art & Design to achieve this goal.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The purchase of modes of transportation (cars, motorcycles, bicycles, skateboards, etc.) is highly anticipated and, once achieved, celebrated as life-enhancing. The one notable exception is wheelchairs. Their acquisition is taken to signify, instead, a concession to aging, disease, injury, and lowered status. While the freedom that the device affords is welcomed by persons with an ambulatory disability (PWAD), the aesthetics of the equipment have an external negative affect on social integration and acceptance. This is because the medical model, which perceives PWAD in terms of defects that must be alleviated, pervades the current design, production, and consumption of wheelchairs. The technology expresses a master status, that of compromised health, not of the individuality and vitality of the end user. This project seeks to flip that signification by creating devices that transform the wheelchair ambiance with play, expressiveness, style, and professionalism. Potentially, 10,225,155 people in the United States will benefit.

THE PROBLEM
The persons with an ambulatory disability are the most severely stigmatized segment of humanity on earth. Some are born into the condition; others acquire it by accident or disease. Its etiology, whether unknown or misunderstood, instills fear and dread in the able-bodied. The population with ambulatory disabilities, meanwhile, contends with the unspoken feeling that they constitute drains on society. This is evidenced by the fact that 10,225,155 persons with an ambulatory disability in the USA fight daily the widely held perception (26% of 1,000 people surveyed) that that they can do their jobs as well as individuals without disabilities. 24.2% of people with ambulatory disabilities between 18 and 64 years old are employed, as compared to 78.4% of able-bodied people. There are at least 5,000,000 and as many as 7,500,000 people in the USA who are negatively impacted. Such prejudice also manifests in the begrudging manner in which mobility equipment is acquired. Currently, the application process, whether via private insurance or Medicaid, is cumbersome, often resulting in a waiting period of months, between needing, becoming eligible for, and actually getting a chair. Both insurance and Medicaid will only provide a new chair if it cannot be repaired for less than it is valued or if there is a significant change in medical need. When the equipment breaks, the individual is left stranded—again—with no chairs to lease in the interim. Such gaps disrupt the individual’s access to continuing to work. This situation relegates them to a life of poverty.

OUR SOLUTION
To end the current social and economic quarantine of persons with an ambulatory disability (PWAD), this project proposes to design, produce and distribute affordable powered personal mobility devices (PMDs) that will infuse the ambiance of wheelchair use with creativity, vitality, and individuality and, in so doing, transform the medical device that will, in other words, turn the perception of a wheelchair from medical equipment to a device that socially includes the user. The direct benefits in creating PMDs that socially empower PWAD will generate a transitional phenomenon for the public and mitigate discrimination. The results of the healing process will not only have positive social changes for the PWAD in casual settings but also in professional, hiring scenarios as well. We will be concentrating on using person-centered design strategies that implement Fine Art approaches in expressiveness and play to create PMDs for social settings and Design stratagems that use elevated style, customization, and professionalism for PMDs appropriate for the workplace. Our solution places great importance on aesthetics of the device to implement a permanent cultural shift and end discrimination against PWAD forever. By foregrounding Fine Art and Design, the prevailing medical model which places the onus on fixing the individual with technology solutions will be replaced with a social model which repairs prevailing prejudice against those with an ambulatory disability. Enhanced technology and functionality of the PMDs designed will be included when it can add to the design and aid in reaching the goal of healing prejudice.

TEAM COLLABORATION
The Studio 4 Gaming Innovation at ASU and the non-profit Wheelchair Labs have, up until now, worked independently. The efforts and expertise of both will be combined to realize this solution. Wheelchair Labs currently supplies gratis powered personal mobility devices (PMDs) to individuals who could not afford them otherwise. This project will build on this locus of work by designing and providing affordable PMDs to transform wheelchairs from medical equipment to technology for empowerment. Our labs will collaboratively design PMDs that help the able-bodied perceive wheelchair users as multifaceted individuals and competent professionals whose full potential has yet to be realized. The Studio 4 Gaming Innovation lab currently researches how toys and games, as transitional objects, can prompt shifts in perception and effect social change. This research will be expanded to include research from nine (9) disciplines.

1. Principal Investigator: Theresa Devine, MFA, Assistant Professor, New College of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences, School of Humanities, Arts, and Cultural Studies, Arizona State University and Director of Studio 4 Gaming Innovation, wheelchair user 2. Co-Principal Investigator: Lance Greathouse, Co-Founder of Wheelchair Labs
3. Co-Principal Investigator: Janis Greathouse, Co-Founder of Wheelchair Labs
4. Creative Research Lead (Fine Art): James White, MFA, Professor, Sculpture, Herberger Institute for Design and the Arts, Arizona State University
5. Creative Research Lead (Industrial Design): Dr. Prasad Boradkar, Professor, Industrial Design, The Design School, Senior Sustainability Scholar, Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University and Director, InnovationSpace; Co-Director, The Biomimicry Center
6. Creative Research Lead (Human Computer Interface): Dr. Troy McDaniel, Research Assistant Professor, School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University and Associate Director, Center for Cognitive Ubiquitous Computing (CUbiC)
6a. Creative Research Faculty Participant (Biological and Health Systems Engineering): Dr. Jeffrey LaBelle, Assistant Professor Biological Health and Systems Engineering and the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University
7. Eradicating Prejudice Lead (Psychology): Dr. Robert Farr, a privatized psychologist in Phoenix, Arizona with 30 years of experience that includes child play therapy and learning disabilities.
8. Eradicating Prejudice Lead (Disability Studies): Dr. Kurt Johnson, Professor in the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine and Head of the Division of Rehabilitation Counseling, University of Washington, Director of the U. W. Center for Technology and Disability Studies
9. Eradicating Prejudice Lead (Social Transformation): Dr. Nathan Martin, Assistant Professor, Liberal Arts & Sciences, School of Social Transformation, Arizona State University

For more information on Wheelchair Labs and Theresa Devine's work follow these links:




http://theresadevine.com

Art Reveal Magazine, July 4, 2016 Web. P 22-27

ART Habens, 5th edition December 2015 Web. P 76-102

Art as an Innovation for Games.
Publication: "Art as an Innovation for Games: A Closer Look at Role of Art in Games."
Author: Theresa Claire Devine
Journal: International Journal of Arts and Humanities, Vol. 2 No. 4; August 2016
The forthcoming online version of this article will be found at: http://ijah.cgrd.org/

This article presents a methodology to decipher and explore this question: is Art a new predicate, a new way to introduce creative innovation, for games? Examining Art as a new way to innovate for Games introduces the idea that there are low and high games, signified thusly: games and Games. The process exposes, through an examination of Games that are Art, there are currently six (6) Art predicates for Games. This study also reveals that these newly found predicates are, indeed, defining traits of Games that are works of Art. In discovering these traits this article identifies the boundaries of an already existing "Gameworld" as Arthur Danto might have seen it, if he had been inclined to conduct such a study.

Game Worlds: A Howard Becker Influenced Institutional Theory of Games.
Publication: "Game Worlds: A Howard Becker Influenced Institutional Theory of Games."
Author: Theresa Claire Devine
Journal: American International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 2 No. 3, June 30, 2016
The forthcoming online version of this article will be found at: http://aijhss.cgrd.org/index.php/54-contact/95-vol-2-no-3-june-2016

This article presents a methodology to decipher and explore this question: is Art a new predicate, a new way to introduce creative innovation, for games? Examining Art as a new way to innovate for Games introduces the idea that there are low and high games, signified thusly: games and Games. The process exposes, through an examination of Games that are Art, there are currently six (6) Art predicates for Games. This study also reveals that these newly found predicates are, indeed, defining traits of Games that are works of Art. In discovering these traits this article identifies the boundaries of an already existing "Gameworld" as Arthur Danto might have seen it, if he had been inclined to conduct such a study.

Games as a New Predicate for Art.
Publication: "Games as a New Predicate for Art: What can Arthur Danto's Theory Reveal about the Role of Games in Art?"
Author: Theresa Claire Devine
Journal: International Journal of Arts and Humanities, Vol. 1 No. 4; December 2015
The online version of this article can be found at: http://ijah.cgrd.org/images/vol.1no.4/7.pdf

The idea of a "predicate" is a way of understanding creative innovation introduced by Arthur Danto in his 1964 essay "The Artworld." This article is derived from a line of inquiry extending from this essay that explores this question: are games a new predicate for Art? This study is interested in articulating his theory and using it to elucidate how games might influence Art. It discovers and proves that games enrich the Artworld by introducing the predicate of intermingled reality.

Integrating Games into the Artworld.
Publication: "Integrating Games into the Artworld: A Methodology and Case Study Exploring the Work of Jason Rohrer"
Author: Theresa Claire Devine
Journal: Games and Culture 2015 (Online First)
DOI: 10.1177/1555412015596105
The online version of this article can be found at: http://gac.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/07/22/1555412015596105.abstract

The game designer Jason Rohrer has self-identified as an artist. By doing so enters his work into a critique process that, according to James Elkins, dates back to the Romantic period in which artists are evaluated by peers on an individualized basis according to the ideals and creative direction they produce in the form of written and verbal artifacts. Arthur Danto calls these artifacts "artistic identification" in his essay, "The Artworld," written in 1964. The study applies this critique method to Rohrer’s work in the game medium and asks how it fares when subjected to what Howard Becker calls, “a continuous process of selection” through critique. It asks, finally, how can knowing this methodology help to elucidate the path for the eventual full-fledged integration of games into the Artworld.

Presented at: IGDA Phoenix Chapter Meeting, Phoenix, AZ, March 2016
Lecture PowerPoint
Lecture Notes
Methodology Flowcharts

Future presentation at: MACAA Conference, Cincinnati, OH, Oct 26-28 2016 2016


What Would Kant Do?
Publication: "Games as Art and Kant's Moral Dilemma: What Can Ethical Theory Reveal About the Role of the Game Designer as Artist?"
Authors: Theresa Claire Devine, William Andrew Presnell and Samuel Miller
Journal: Games and Culture 2014 9: 277
DOI: 10.1177/1555412014538812
The online version of this article can be found at: http://gac.sagepub.com/content/9/4/277

Presentation accepted at: 35th Annual Conference of the South West Texas Popular Culture and American Culture Association, Albuquerque, NM, February 2014

Poster presented at: EX-STATIC - Excellence in Science, Technology and Team-based Interdisciplinary Creativity, Glendale, AZ, February 2012


Pursuing the transformative power of art through the media of games has led to exploring the connection of thinking with actions, or the study of ethics. Ethics is goal-oriented and has to do with thinking and actions, just like games. Every day we are vicariously presented with various situations in which an action must be taken, whether in video, audio or textual. The goal of this research path is to further an understanding of the intersection of ethics and games by analyzing in-game challenges and game mechanics through lenses of various ethical theories. I believe that this path of study and scholarly publication will not only open up thinking deeply about the relationship between ethics and in-game challenges, but also spill over to impact on readers’ perceptions of real life challenges and help them to make connections that they might not have realized before. This study takes place in the Studio 4 Gaming Innovation and allows me to involve my undergraduate students in the research process. The first publication we are working on is titled “What Would Kant Do?” a play-through of the video game Fallout 3 as Immanuel Kant. Kant’s categorical imperatives focus not on the outcome of any action, but instead on the will of the person acting; this ethic is deontological rather than consequential. Kant challenges us to critically examine our will in light of rationality, humanity and autonomy, and deny acting on any contradicting maxim. Play methods such as the desired stats of the avatar, kill avoidance tactics, and stealth strategies to apply the categorical imperatives during gameplay force the player to think with the imperatives during every scenario. With the ability to make game-changing decisions, Fallout 3 is a perfect medium for exploring what Kant would do in a post-apocalyptic world.

In the fall of 2011 this research interest awarded Theresa Devine a place in the Lincoln New College Ethics Teaching Fellows seminar, and, as a result of the work in the seminar, in March 2012, she was invited to be a Lincoln Center for Applied Ethics Scholar.

Considering Games as Art
At long last, the game industry is beginning to take itself seriously as an art form or, if you will, it is “leveling up.” Such is increasingly evident in the writing and work of game designers like Tracy Fullerton, Jonathan Blow, and Jason Rohrer. In this exploration Assistant Professor Theresa Devine considers art as defined by various great visual artists and show how their works express their artistic premises. She will use their examples as templates for the evaluation of alignment of premise and product in the game medium. She skips over the current popular debate as to the ontological status of games as art and takes it as given that games are an artistic medium. When using the same methodology and standard of excellence as found in the art community, how well do games fare?

Presented at: 33rd Annual Conference of the South West Texas Popular Culture and American Culture Association, Albuquerque, NM, February 2012, 1 (one) citation: Ruggill, Judd Journal of Gaming & Virtual Worlds Volume 4 Number 2© 2012 Intellect Ltd Conference Report. Pp187, 189

Presented at: Tuesdays Here in Kiva[ThinK Speaker Series], Phoenix, AZ, September 2011

Presented at: IGDA Phoenix Chapter Meeting, Phoenix, AZ, August 2011







Shared Desires, Conflicting Agendas, and Lessons Learned
Any professor who develops games will inevitably be asked to work in partnership to make an educational game. As a new professor, I was very open to the idea of collaborative research because I felt an affinity with my colleagues and thought that we shared desires that developing games satisfied. The requests from my colleagues to make educational games were numerous. I attempted to join forces with these professors and every one of these endeavors failed. The shared desires, conflicting agendas and lessons learned from these failures are the subject of this presentation.

This presentation is divided into three parts. First, I discuss desires from three points of view: mine, theirs, and shared desires. Second, I discuss these development conflicts: pedagogical confusion, technology wars, bait and switch, and disappearing collaborators. Third, I talk about the lessons learned to help others avoid these pitfalls.

Presented at: Serious Play Conference 2014, Serious Play Association Conference, Los Angeles, CA, July 2014

Serious Play Conference 2014 - Los Angeles, CA

Powerpoint presentation

Templates
Note: all templates are in MS Word format and will open in a new window.
Stakeholder Questionnaire Template
Collaborative Research Agreement
Contract Establishing Roles
Technology Lead Agreement
Stakeholder Definition Document
Stakeholder Requirements Document
Project Plan Overview
Game Design Document

BonusTemplates
Board Game Rules Template
Technical Design Document
Change Request Form
Game Concept Document